In 2004 HSPD-12 was published which set forth broad goals for access control and identity management of Government employees and contractors. In response to the above goals of HSPD-12, NIST developed the Federal Information Processing Standard 201 (FIPs 201). The government project that this is commonly referred to is known as the Personal Identity Verification (PIV) of Federal Employees / Contractors. The FIPs 201 guidelines are not limited to government; steps are also being taken by corporations such seeking an interoperable and secure access control program, such as, Boeing and Johnson & Johnson. Common initiatives that fall under HSPD-12 are the PIV card and Common Access Card (CAC).
Biometrics is an important part of FIPs 201 adding multiple factor authentication for identification processing. Traditionally access control systems have relied on ID cards that can be stolen, lost, shared or copied. With a biometric image, such as a face or fingerprint image stored on the card, there is a secure and efficient way to ensure the person holding a card is the rightful owner.
U. S. Department of Homeland Security
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